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## Tuesday, 26 March 2013

### LOCAL BEHAVIOR of FUNCTIONS PART 4

Consider a function f(x) which exhibits a Type I or Type II behavior on the interval [a,b] (in other words, the integral  is improper). We saw before that the this integral is defined as a limit. Therefore we have two cases:
1
the limit exists (and is a number), in this case we say that the improper integral is convergent;
2
the limit does not exist or it is infinite, then we say that the improper integral is divergent.
If the improper integral  is split into a sum of improper integrals (because f(x) presents more than one improper behavior on [a,b]), then the integral converges if and only if any single improper integral is convergent.
Example. Consider the function  on [0,1]. We have

Therefore the improper integral

converges if and only if the improper integrals

are convergent. In other words, if one of these integrals is divergent, the integral  will be divergent.
The p-integrals Consider the function  (where p > 0) for  . Looking at this function closely we see that f(x) presents an improper behavior at 0 and  only. In order to discuss convergence or divergence of

we need to study the two improper integrals

We have

and

For both limits, we need to evaluate the indefinite integral

We have two cases:
if p=1, then we have
if  , then we have
In order to decide on convergence or divergence of the above two improper integrals, we need to consider the cases: p<1, p=1 and p >1.

If p <1, then we have
and

If p=1, then we have
and

If p > 1, we have
and

The p-Test: Regardless of the value of the number p, the improper integral

is always divergent. Moreover, we have
is convergent if and only if p <1
is convergent if and only if p >1